[Simplified Spelling Society Pamphlet No. 15.]
[See Journal and Newsletter articles, Pamflet 15, Cut Spelling and Papers by Chris Upward.]
Regularity & Irregularity in English Spelling
(British & American) analyzed by standard British pronunciation with c. 6,000 examples enlarged from the cover of the Journal of the simplified spelling society
produced by Christopher Upward 1997
Introduction.Previous catalogs of the variations of English spelling have typically attempted to list just the alternative sound-symbol and symbol-sound correspondences found in the base forms of words. They list hundreds of different spelling patterns that represent the 40 or so sounds of English, and/or the many sounds that most spelling patterns can represent. And the picture they provide of written English is unquestionably one of barely fathomable complexity that does much to explain the difficulties that learners and users of every kind experience in decoding and encoding the alphabetic forms of English words.
Yet there is a further layer of difficulty that previous catalogs have largely ignored, indeed some commentators have been loth even to admit its existence: the pervasive morphophonemic instability of written English. This is manifested in a number of ways. Most striking are arbitrary spelling changes from one form of a word-stem to another, as between SPEA-/SPEE- in speak/speech, and HI-/HEI- in high/height. Far more widespread are unpredictable patterns of inflection, such as P/PP in gossiped/worshipped, -ING/-EING in raging/ageing, -OS/-OES in pianos/potatoes. Identical letter-strings can also vary wildly in sound-value, leading to major mispronunciations such as rhyming undermine/ determine. Any study of the errors made in writing and speaking English will show that these kinds of irregularity are hardly less serious a hazard of the written language than the long recognized variety of sound-symbol and symbol-sound correspondence.
The present catalog provides copious common examples of all the above aspects of English spelling: the use of letters, the representation of sounds, the contrasting spelling of rhymes, the contrasting pronunciation of parallel spellings, and the orthographical instability of morphemes. Its basic structure is alphabetic, with entries arranged by the following system. Under A (the vowel letters have the most complex entries), we first see examples of its varying use to represent specific sound-values (A for /æ/ in..., A for /ɑ/ in..., A for /e/ in..., etc), then some ambiguous readings and alternative spellings of its sounds, then its use as the first element in diphthongs (A for /ai/ in..., A for /au/ in..., etc), then its use to represent contrasting sounds (Single A in..., AA in..., AE in... A-E in..., AR in.... etc), and finally, examples of silent A and rhyming words that do not use A at all. The entries for the other vowel letters are similarly arranged, while the consonants mostly have a much simpler, more self-evident layout. It will be noticed that some words are listed more than once, as exemplifying more than one kind of anomaly, and that some are chosen for their curious histories.
The lack of a worldwide standard for spelling and pronouncing English further complicated the compilation of the catalog. In keeping with its British origin, it takes a loosely defined British standard as its basis, but it tries to show the main departures from it, that is, chiefly American usage. Spelling variations proved relatively easy to indicate, since most distinctively American forms involve fewer letters than their British equivalents. Thus the entry f(o)etus shows that in Britain the form foetus is usual, while for America fetus is sufficient. Alternatives involving differences other than omission are juxtaposed as in centre/-er or combine both patterns, as in man(o)euvre/-er. In general, the sign '/' is used to suggest many different kinds of parallel or discrepancy between spellings.
Alternative pronunciations were harder to represent. The words are grouped according to a broadly standard British pronunciation (roughly, as sometimes termed 'Received Pronunciation', 'BBC English', etc), though even British readers will note more than a few words which might be differently pronounced. Particularly in cases where British and American pronunciations differ markedly, words are listed so as immediately to strike American (and other) readers as anomalous, as when clerk is shown rhyming with lark, and apricot and geyser having the vowel of April and seize. Where readers encounter anomalies of this kind, they may care to communicate them to the address below, with a view to developing alternative versions of the catalog to reflect non-British usage.
The biggest difference between the present catalog and most of its predecessors lies in its size. Previous catalogs mostly comprise hundreds of pages of explicit analysis and sometimes near-exhaustive lists of each spelling pattern. The analysis presented in the score of pages below is by contrast implicit and the listing selective, giving mainly common rather than rare words and a representative sample rather than a comprehensive inventory of regular and irregular spellings. Uses of the catalog may include: for reference (eg, to establish how English uses the digraph AI, or spells the diphthong /ai/); as a teaching resource (eg, to check that pupils or students can handle the most important English spelling patterns); for general acclimatization to the vagaries of English spelling; or simply for browsing in wonder at the infinite unpredictability with which today's premier international language is written. But for whatever purpose they wish to use the catalog, readers should soon be persuaded that the world would benefit greatly from some regularization of the chaos that is now English spelling.
Regularity & Irregularity in English Spelling - analyzed by British pronunciation and indicating American spellingsA. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z.
A for /æ/ in add bad bass(=fish) plaid have guarantee marry habit rabbit salmon,
A for /ɑ/ in father bazaar car card are hurrah heart ask pass banana vase bath aunt laugh calm half morale collage/village,
A for /e/ in any Thames ate bread h(a)emorrhoid again said says,
A for /æ, e:/ in national/nation natural/nature profanity/profane,
A for /e:/ in April apricot bass(=music) chaos able bathe maple rake race racial waste maelstrom aid aide straight day daily dahlia halfpenny gaol/jail ga(u)ge,
A for /i/ in village carriage shillelagh guinea,
A for /i:/ in c(a)esium quay,
A for /ɒ/ in was wrath swamp quality quarry yacht blancmange because,
A for /ɔ:/ in all also water bald halt quarter talk fault taught,
A for /o/ in mauve,
A for /ə/ in about probable bigamy litany burglary incendiary cheetah mountain coxswain petal flotsam woman vicar forward,
ambiguous A in bass(=fish) bass(=music) bath+ed/bathe+d bath+ing/bath(e)+ing to entrance/the entrance,
A or E in stratagem/strategy disdain/deign faint/feint villain/villein ambiance/-ence appearance/apparent propellant/-ent renaissance/renascence ascendant/-ent attendant/superintendent assistant/consistent dependant/dependent briar/brier pedlar/peddler separation/operation gray/grey,
A for /ai/ in aisle samurai Nairobi ay aye,
A for /au/ in gaucho trauma,
A for /eə/ in Aaron aerial parent pare/pair/pear prayer millionaire.
Single A in man many mask far faring ration nation national fatal fatality slavish lavish Cam Cambridge,
AA in aardvark Aaron Isaac,
AE in Gael Israel aerobic h(a)emorrhage an(a)emia gyn(a)ecology,
A-E in ale ate are have care dressage curate later water chance/change,
AI in paid plaid said again fair aisle portrait mountain mosaic laity,
AL in pal pally pall palsy salmon calm talk swallow,
AO in Mao chaos gaol pharaoh extraordinary,
AR in barn bare compare/repair comparable/comparison disparate/disparity farce scarce quarter beggar upward separate secretary February,
AU in gaucho glaucoma ga(u)ge ca(u)ldron fault/false aural/oral naught/nought aunt laugh draught/draft because laurel mauve restaurant/restoration,
AW in awe claw flaw law Lawrence/Laurence paw raw saw bawd hawk awl/haul fawn/faun gawp sprawl/withdrawal tawdrey/Audrey drawer,
AY in say says quay layer prayer caraway/Paraguay,
(for EA, IA, OA, UA, see under E, I, O, U),
silent A in (a)esthetic/Esther musically/publicly bread/bred breakfast/trek earth/berth leave/eve hoarse/horse military/ministry loathe/clothe beauty/duty principal/principle cocoa/rococo.
Non-A rhymes: rang/meringue wash/posh rain/rein page/beige cape/crepe rage/regime okay/communique/matinee/dossier/bouquet hair/heir fare/there wear/where lark/clerk bread/said/bed/bred clean/routine ease/Chinese leave/eve ear/souvenir pear/where earn/fern earth/berth/birth guinea/tinny aisle/pile bureaucracy/democracy oak/coke mauve/stove bureau/burrow beauty/duty affect/effect passable/possible village/college postage/vestige forage/Norwich pottage/porridge spinach/partridge woman/lemon resistant/consistent boatswain/bosun hangar/hanger grammar/glamour military/ministry/monastery/history obstinate/definite.
B in bib blip beauty brat cherub microbe bulb barb rubs amble sabre/-er rebel amber eatable edible,
B/BB in ebb/web abbey/baby sabbath rob/robbed/robber/robbing baby/shabby gable/gabble, abridge/abbreviate robin/bobbin habit/rabbit double/bubble,
cognates without B chamber/camera comb/oakum/unkempt crumb/crummy dumb/dum(b)found/dummy flamboyant/flame gamble/game humble/humility numb/numskull number/numeral plumb/plummet redoubt/reduction remember/memory resemble/similar tremble/tremulous,
silent B or not jamb lamb/Lambeth limb climb/clamber bomb/bomber/bombard tomb/womb numb+er/number aplomb plumb/plumber/plumbago thumb/thimble succumb crumb/crumble dithyramb/dithyrambic debt/debit doubt/indubitable subtle.
C for /k/ in cat cot cut clip crop basic talc zinc arc tics fact because bacon difficult excommunicate excuse uncle acre tarmac music havoc,
C for /s/ in cell city cylinder facet facetious decide halcyon except excite face fleece force once icy fancy mercy etc,
C for /k, s/ in cancel cycle critical/criticism electric/electricity medical/medicine narcotic/narcissus placate/placid ranco(u)r/rancid,
C for /ʃ/ in appreciate conscientious,
C for /ʧ/ in cello,
C or CK in beacon/beckon bloc/block garlic/hemlock frolic/frolicked traffic/trafficker picnic/picnicking panic/panicky,
C/K alternation in canine/kennel cat/kitten cinema/kinetic cow/kine curb/kerb curfew/kerchief disc/disk duke/ducal joke/jocular provoke/provocation,
C/S for /s/ in defence/-se/defensive council/counsel grocer/gross licence/license lice/louse mice/mouse offence/-se/offensive practice/[practise precede/supersede pretence/pretense prophecy/prophesy sauce/sausage,
C for /k/ + E, I in Celtic encephalitis arcing,
C for /s/ + A, O in facade Caesar coelacanth,
CC for /k/ in impeccable soccer succumb hiccup occur tobacco,
CC for /ks/ in access accident coccyx,
C/CC in acetic/accept acid/accident vacillate/vaccinate ecstasy/eccentric acoustic/account acute/accuse across/cross/accursed/cursed association/soccer/success,
CE for /ʃ/ in ocean herbaceous,
CH for /ʧ/ in child chief each coach pouch macho mulch pinch arch achieve,
CH/TCH in aitch batch/bachelor witch/which lichen/kitchen crutch/such/touch Dutch/duchess,
'Greek' CH/CCH for /k/ in chaos chemist chiropody choir chorus chlorine chronology chyle scheme schism mechanic orchestra lichen architect echo hypochondriac technical anarchy monarch hemistich/acrostic triptych chiliastic/kilo bacchanal saccharine scherzo Chianti ache dachshund,
CH for /ʤ/ in spinach sandwich,
CH for /ʃ/ in champagne chef chivalry parachute m(o)ustache,
CH for /x/ in Bach loch,
CHS for /ʃ/ in fuchsia,
CH or K in autarchy/autarky leuchaemia/leuk(a)emia,
CI for /ʃ/ in special musician/music ancient conscious,
CK in rock tickle locker sticky hillock,
CKS/X alternation in Dickson/Dixon pocks/pox socks/sox,
C/QU alternations in licorice/liquorice opacity/opaque,
CK/QUE alternation in check/cheque,
CQ(U) for /k/ in acquiesce acquire acquit lacquer,
C or T for /ʃ/ in palace/palatial spacious/spatial substance/substantial suspicion/condition coercion/exertion,
C or X in connection/connexion reflection/reflexion,
CZ for /ʧ/ in Czech,
CZ or TS for /z/ in czar/tsar,
S+C/CH/K in skeleton sceptic/skeptic sceptre/-er science muscle/muscular scheme schedule schist miscellany convalesce fascist crescendo,
silent C in indict scent scissors scythe victuals yacht,
non-matching values Celt/cell arcade/facade soccer/success predict/indict chemist/chemise.
D in did dew due drop dwarf hold hand hard birds handle madam London harder,
D/DD in add/bad odd/god Armageddon bed/bedded/bedding mad/madder/maddest/madden/madness shoddy/body oddest/modest adroit/address/edress adduce/reduce laddie/lady meddle/medal muddy/study peddle/pedlar shadow/shallow widow/winnow,
in -ED healed/heated famed/fated cried taxied skied (<ski)/skied (<sky) played/laid/paid/said/made,
D as /t/ in passed/past packed/pact sniffed/rift rapped/rapt guessed/guest spelled/spelt,
D as /ʤ/ in adjoin/ajar diurnal/journal grandeur procedure Acadian/Cajun Indian/Injun soldier/sojer,
cognates without D admiral/emir advance/avaunt card/chart expound/exponent gender/genre jeopardy/party obedience/obeisance remainder/remain riband/ribbon resound/resonate sound/sonic,
silent D in handkerchief handsome Wednesday.
E for /e/ in bed bread leisure leopard web/ebb trek/wreck beg/egg hotel/gazelle very/ferry clarinet/marionette,
E for /eə/ in where/wear there/their heir/aerial scherzo sombrero,
E for /e:/ in elite deity great veil eight they allegro shillelagh suede renege fete ballet cafe,
E for /ə/ in the camel bachelor system complement garden linen children moment sergeant/Sarjent passenger arsenal covenant singer brier/briar adviser/advisor chauffeur modern operate property monastery literal tolerant conqueror manufacturer,
E for /ɜ:/ in err her berth earth herd heard,
E for /ɑ/ in hearth clerk Derby sergeant
E for /ai/ in either height sleight eye,
E for /i:/ in be bee/sea/key speak/speech proceed/precede/procedure region orthop(a)edic peace/piece geyser seize receipt/deceit metre/-er eve leave sleeve receive/relieve devious era period people/steeple femur/f(a)eces/f(o)etus,
E for /i:, e/ in discrete/discreet/discretion to read/he read hero/heroine penal/penalty redeem/redemption serene/serenity severe/severity,
E for /iə/ in idea dear deer here weir/tier weird/tiered theory neon museum,
E for /i/ in emotion enquiry/inquiry despatch/dispatch English pretty archetype artefact/artifact liquefy/liquid putrefy/putrid stupefy/stupid rarefy/rarity gaiety/laity/deity sieve simile guinea coffee valley foreign sovereign hated wicked women houses/daisies forest bucket surfeit,
E for /ɒ/ in bureaucracy encore entente rapprochement rendezvous,
E for /o/ in yeoman sew/toe,
E for /oi/ in Reuters Bayreuth,
E for /u:/ in yew view queue/shoe/blue,
E for /ju:/ in ewe few,
diacritic E in hate/hat mete/met kite/kit note/not cute/cut arete/claret routine/Latin office/traffic wince/zinc noticeable/inexplicable ocean/American herbaceous/raucous lice/tic chance/change postage/postbag singe/sing swingeing/swinging singeing/cringing ag(e)ing/raging ap(e)ing/taping ax(e)ing/taxing allege/ledge/renege manageable/indefatigable pageant/arrogant dungeon courageous/analogous beige/big dense/dens loathe/loath,
silent E in are were forebear/forbear for(e)go ax(e) adz(e) caviar(e) program(me) come done carafe giraffe badge bridge league catalog(ue) tongue apple engine/origin foe/go potatoes/pianos Europe/develop grotesque calibre/-er jewel(le)ry ignore/abhor failure/allure purchase/atlas brunette/clarinet opposite/deposit continue/emu give serve owe eye stye/sty heart fire/fiery yeoman/Roman chimney/country bogey/bogy/bogie curts(e)y stor(e)y whisk(e)y forfeit mischief sieve luncheon truncheon,
E in inflections in losses/lots dishes/dips watches/woks fixes fizzes allies/alleys Germanies/Germanys does/goes potatoes/pianos argues/emus bailed/baled waited/wasted subpoenaed acned freed taxied pitied/denied/died/dyed embargoed played/paid/made taller/later tallest/latest whose/its,
ambiguous E in agèd/aged blessèd/blessed crookèd/crooked learnèd/learned raggèd/ragged axes (=plural ax(e))/axes (=plural axis) sewer (=person sewing)/sewer (=drain),
disappearing E in esquire/squire estate/state enemy/enmity note/notable debate/debat(e)able mile/mil(e)age acknowledge/acknowledg(e)ment judge/judg(e)ment middle/middling come/coming hope/hoping promise/promising have/having carve/carving give/giving love/loving ax(e)/ax(e)ing preponderance/hindrance boisterous/disastrous where/wherever awesome/awful active/activity one/only/lonely whole/wholly/sole/solely bone/bon(e)y nature/natural argue/argument true/truly,
Single E in devil/evil seven/even discretion/completion hotel/hostel jerk/clerk Betty/pretty England Peter/deter discrete/discreet naked/baked mystery/mysterious tome/epitome France/fiance elite fete bullet/ballet,
EA in tea/idea/area/guinea bead/bread/to read/he read speak/steak real/realism/reality ear/bear early/nearly great/treat/threat beat/beatitude hearth/earth create/creature leading (<to lead)/leading (=printers' lead) mean/meant/sergeant bureau/bureaucracy/beauty/Beauvoir,
EE in see meet feet/foot geese/goose teeth/tooth freed exceed feel queer Beelzebub Beethoven threepence toffee,
E-E in concede/suede college/allege/renege scheme scene here/were/there these complete/machete eve eye trapeze,
EI in heifer Leicester leisure deceit receipt receive seize weir heinous heir sleigh rein reinstate sovereign eiderdown reveille,
EO in neon video simultaneous herbaceous courageous righteous Geoffrey jeopardy leopard people theory reopen yeoman luncheon,
ER in her hero heroine serious were here there beer differ defer clerk sergeant,
EU in Europe feud/lewd rheumatism Freud man(o)euvre/-er reunion museum chauffeur connoisseur Amadeus milieu lieutenant,
EW in ewe new drew Jew view shrewd jewel skewer newt pewter eschew sinew sew sewer Shrewsbury strewn/sewn,
EY in prey survey eyrie geyser Reynolds turkey key eye,
(For AE, IE, OE, UE see under A, I, O, U.)
Non-E rhymes: heart/art clerk/park penny/many metre/-er/litre/-er herd/bird/word/curd sherbet/turbot vein/vain/vane they/may fete/fate enjoin/injunction pigeon/pidgin candied/candid grommet/vomit abbey/shabby chimney/country storey/story whiskey/whisky rarefy/clarify/rarity erroneous/harmonious berry/bury dyeing/dying sieving/living herbaceous/spacious sew/so sewn/moan/tone potatoes/pianos before/abhor beauty/duty duel/dual Stewart/Stuart skewer/skua operate/separate/incorporate discipline/muslin shone/on one/won done/none/son apostrophe/atrophy catalog(ue)/log opposite/posit argue/emu tongue/lung.
F in fief few float friend if ifs rift twelfth self dwarf,
F/FF in staff cliff off/of cuff offal waffle effect/defect difference/deference chauffeur/sofa offer/often raffia/Mafia pontiff/pontificate scaffold bailiff/motif giraffe/carafe affirm/confirm afford/afar affray/afraid,
silent F in halfpenny,
F/V alternation belief/believe bereft/bereave drift/drive fifth/five fox/vixen grief/grieve hoof/hooves/hoofs/roofs knife/knives left/leave lief/love plaintiff/plaintive proof/prove relief/relieve safe/save scarf/scarfs/scarves shelf/shelves strife/strive thrift/thrive twelfth/twelve waive/waif,
non-F for /f/ in cough laugh tough draught/draft Humphrey/Humfrey lieutenant/left phlox/flocks photograph phantasm/fantasy Philippines/Filipino prophet/profit Ralph/Ralf frenetic/schizophrenia sulphur/sulfur telephone/freefone.
G for /g/ in gag get renege begin gibbous go gun glow grow legume guano Gwen dog algal bagel Mongol bugle amalgam organ ogre argue Argyll,
G for /ʤ/ in gaol margarine gem genuine geography German gin agent/pageant detergent/sergeant mortgagor page village college vestige huge bulge large,
G for /g, ʤ/ in algae analog(ue)/analogy/analogous demagogy/apology brig/bridge gigantic/gigavolt gill (=of fish)/gill (=liquid measure) Gillingham (=Dorset)/Gillingham (=Kent) misogyny/gyn(a)ecology/gymnast hegemony George/gorge gibbon/gibbet goal/gaol haggis/digit allegation/allege litigate/litigious Margaret/Margery oblige/obligatory purge/purgatory suffrage/suffragan veg/vegetable vertigo/vertiginous biggest/suggest dagger/exaggerate sag/rage/sagged/ragged/raged urgent/burger,
G for /ʒ/ in genre gite bourgeois regime collage beige prestige gamboge,
G/GG in leg/egg beg/beggar/begged/begging big/bigger/biggest slug/sluggish pig/piggy bag/baggage toboggan haggard trigger nugget maggot struggle agree/aggression agrarian/aggravate,
GH for /g/ in burgher dinghy/dingy ghastly gherkin ghetto ghost spaghetti,
GN for /ɲ/ in cognac poignant/poniard, See Silent G with n
GU for /g/ in guarantee/warranty guard/ward guer(r)illa/war guest guide guild/gild guile/wile guillemot guilt guy vague league fatigue/indefatigable rogue catalog(ue) morgue fugue/fugal languor/languid,
DG for /ʤ/ in badge/age edge/veg fridge/refrigerator ridge/dirge knowledge/college dodge/orgy budge/bulge,
NG for /ŋ, ŋg, nʤ in rang singe longer angle/angel banged/flanged/changed hanger/danger jungle/lunge singe/singer/finger/ginger conger/congeries ageing/raging/gauging singing/singeing/cringing long/longer/longing/longest/longevity/longitude tongs/tongues harangue/meringue,
silent GH in straight/strait strai(gh)tjacket taught/taut naughty/haughty/hauteur distraught/distracted eight height light/lit/lite tight delight/delicious sprightly/sprite dough/donut though thought thorough through flight/fly sleight/sly drought/dry plough/plow Loughborough/Middlesbrough/Edinburgh/Greenboro Hugh/Hugo,
GH sounded in laugh laughter/daughter/rafter enough rough tough cough trough hiccough/hiccup draught/draft,
silent G in gnash gnat gnaw/nag gneiss gnome gnostic/agnostic gnu diaphragm phlegm/phlegmatic impugn sign/signal resign/resignation arraign foreign sovereign campaign champagne deign/disdain feign/feint align/line reign/rein,
G/J alternation in gaol/jail gelatine/jelly gentle/jaunty Geoffrey/Jeffrey Gerald/Jerry gesture/jest gibbet/jib gibe/gybe/jibe Gillian/Jillian Margery/Marjorie.
H in hat heat hit hot hut hypothesis ahead hermit hostage herb horrible hospital host hotel human humble humo(u)r h(a)emorrhage/an(a)emia heuristic/eureka hippodrome/Philip cathode/anode/odometer homonym/anomaly rehabilitate/ability,
silent initial H in heir/heritage honest hono(u)r hour/horologist,
silent elided H in annihilate vehement yog(h)(o)urt shepherd/Sheppard Durham forehead dachshund Neandert(h)al exhaust exhibit Urquhart,
silent final H in cheetah chutzpah Deb(o)ra(h) hallelujah/alleluia howdah Messiah Sara(h) savanna(h) veranda(h),
miscellaneous silent H in ache anchor fuchsia jodhpur dinghy ghastly ghost khaki Munich Rheims Rhine Rhone spaghetti Thames thyme yacht.
(See under C for H in all CH digraphs as in church chef chaos loch;
see under G for GH digraphs as in high rough ghetto;
see under P for PH digraphs as in philosophy;
see under R for RH digraphs as in rhyme;
see under S for SH digraphs as in fish-shop;
see under T for TH digraphs as in thin then;
see under W for WH digraphs as in what who whole).
I for /i/ in ill Israeli sit fill fulfil(l) kill/kilogram bitter/bitumen bitty/city irritate/spirit piano mediate carriage crevice morbid sheriff porridge vestige denying heroine heroin mint debris give living active sieve buried ladies build ruin victuals,
I for /ai/ in I rabbi diamond giant science client quiet quite time wild while/whilst find pint ninth tidy final iron choir viscount island isle indict align/line climb guide pile price oblige libel Bible rifle title mitre high/height flight/fly trial lie lied liar shier/shyer fire fiery wiry higher pliers prior society biology triumph,
I for /i:/ in ski kiwi mosquito pizza police fatigue machine magazine routine technique suite litre/-er believe field fiend frieze piece priest shriek siege cashier pier souvenir,
I for /ɜ:/ in sir bird girl stirring/stirrup,
I for /ə/ in fossil raisin family animal platinum continent edible/eatable,
I for /j/ in spaniel Italian brilliant million simian Palestinian utopian onion familiar barrier warrior view,
I for /ai/ or /i/ in admire/admirable child/children Christ/Christian crime/criminal describe/description provide/provision reside/residence finish/final finite/infinite five/fifth indict/predict irate/irascible alive/living private/privy ride/ridden rise/risen sign/signal virus/virulent wide/width wild/wilderness wind/windlass wise/wisdom/wizard arthritis/arthritic termini/martini pint/hint ninth/plinth diver/river device/service paradise/promise,
silent I in business friend heifer lieutenant medicine parliament cushion fashion parishioner porpoise tortoise,
redundant I in appraise baize maize malaise moraine plaice praise raise waive niece piece besiege liege hygiene achieve believe receive seize frieze Sheila/Shelagh juice sluice bruise cruise nuisance,
diacritic I in electrician/electricity/electric financial/finance social/society musician/music spacious Norwegian religion rigid/rigo(u)r Belgium soldier passion Egyptian nation question vision,
inflectional variation in basis/bases fungi/fungus.
Single I in the wind/to wind privy/ivy litre/-er/mitre/-er Islam/island,
IA in piano trial Ian association industrial deviant Christian Asia marriage parliament
IE in conscientious sieve movie carried babies chief die dried tries fiery diet spaniel audience easier view convenient ancient patient soldier friend,
I-E in suffice/police/office hide wife like while time line/machine/imagine fire quite/opposite writhe dive/give size,
II in Hawaii Pompeii radii skiing taxiing,
IO in radio ionic lion billion region mission vision ration nation fashion question bastion superior gracious religious facetious anxious,
IU in triumph genius aluminium Confucius Belgium Mauritius.
(For AI, EI, OI, UI, see under A, E, O, U; for I/Y alternation, see under Y.)
Non-I rhymes singlet/English witty/pretty dizzy/busy piece/geese tier/cheer immerse/emerge firm/worm birth/berth mirth/earth fir/defer/fur/myrrh vermin/women routine/canteen suite/sweet fancies/fences.
J in jackal jaguar January Japan jargon jaw jay jazz jealous jeep Jehovah jeopardy jerk Jesus jet Jew jig join jockey joke jolly jostle journey joy juice jumble jump June jungle junior just judge adjust Raj jar/ajar major prejudice subject subjugate enjoy banjo majesty pejorative,
J as /ʒ/ in bijou,
J as /h/ in junta marijuana La Jolla,
(for J/G alternation as in jail/gaol, see under G),
J/DI alternation in Cajun/Acadian Injun/Indian sojer/soldier,
J/I alternation in hallelujah/alleluia jot/iota.
K in Kaiser kangaroo keg kin khaki kill koala Kuwait kleenex krill skin ankle naked weaken whisker bake eke like spoke fluke yak trek beatnik wok speak week oak look milk talk folk think work ask squawk,
KK in pukka trekked,
silent K in knapsack knee knife knot know knuckle knowledge/acknowledge blackguard,
(for CK and for C/K alternation, see under C),
K/QU alternation in bark/barque mask/masque.
L in lamb let lick log luck blot clip flat glad klan plum slip sclerosis melon bulb talc old self Elgin bulge elk film kiln help else bolt health valve girl,
'syllabic' L in principle/principal apple/chapel fossil symbol consul difficult methyl anomaly/family catalog(ue)/epilog(ue)/monolog(ue) equivalent/excellent/sibilant/insolent similar/bachelor/tricolo(u)r animal,
L/LL in sell tell all/also alright/all right allay/lay/alight/light allude/collude/illusion collision/Coliseum syllable pall/pal appal(l)/appalled recoilless beautifully whole/wholly/holy/sole/solely holly/holy/holiday full/fill/fulfil(l)/fulfilled paralleled/paralyse/-yze crystal/crystalline metal/metallic council/council(l)or counsel/counsel(l)or marvel/marvel(l)ous tranquil/tranquillity bakelite/satellite fell/felon jelly/gelatine jewel(le)ry false/fallacy battalion/medallion lobelia/camellia rule/tulle fool/folly doll/roll/control/pistol vermilion/million envelop/gallop palate/palette/pallet travel/travel(l)ed/travel(l)er/travel(l)ing basic/basically/public/publicly below/bellow postil(l)ion,
silent L in calf half/Alf halve/salve chalk stalk talk walk/alkali/Balkan folk yolk/polka alms balm calm palm almond salmon could should would colonel Colquhoun.
M in mum mute small dogma tumble thumb lamda comfort hymnal damn bump glimpse empty triumph Thames warmth elm calm arm,
'syllabic' M in bantam system victim atom album synonym spasm prism microcosm/bosom paroxysm logarithm rhythm/fathom museum bigamy enemy economy epitome ultimate optimum adamant complement/compliment gossamer Mortimer customer,
M/MM in dam/dammed/damming gamma/gamut grammar/glamo(u)r program(me)/telegram gram(me) program(m)er omit/commit symbol/symmetry comma/coma incom(m)unicado camel/mammal gammon lemon/lemming/demon summit/pumice/plumage amuse ammunition accommodation committee comity sum/summarize summer,
silent M in mnemonic/amnesia/amnesty.
N in nun none new snag zinc lunch hand sing singe think lens ant ninth bronze kiln barn rain messenger/message passenger/passage newt nickname nonce nightingale an/a drunken/drunk mine/my maiden/maid olden/old,
'syllabic' N in hadn't isn't urban certain garden cabin imagine fashion cotton Whitsun children assistant consistent linen litany ebony criminal platinum permanent gardener,
N/NN in in/inn fin/Finn/Finland nun/nunnery pin/pinned/pinning pine/pined/pining thin/thinner/thinnest common/commoner/commonest any/penny tinny/tiny canine/kennel canon/cannon personal/personnel tunnel/tribunal dinner/diner minnow/minor bannock banish/banner finish/Finnish panel/channel anneal/anew annex connect innovate innocuous/inoculate annoy/anoint bonnet/planet pennant/tenant spanner/Spanish stannic/satanic tenner/tenor tyrant/tyranny connive/coniferous innate/inattentive unnatural/unattractive suddenness linen/dinner/diner canal/channel,
N for /ŋ/ in zinc concrete ankle anxious restaurant,
(for GN see under G),
N with silent letters gnat feign foreign sign/signal know/acknowledge pneumonia,
(for NG see under G),
silent N in autumn/autumnal column/columnar condemn/condemnation damn/damnation hymn/hymnal solemn/solemnity.
O for /ɒ/ in ox dog frost John Jonathan sorry proverb shoddy/body holly/holiday copper/proper gone Gloucester cough trough knowledge,
O for /o:/ in go foe home gross roll cold colt only alone photos vetoes zeros/zeroes holy yolk post/compost baronial yeoman toad brooch/broach mo(u)ld/mo(u)lt/shoulder/soul/bowl though groan/grown owe over phoney arrow mower forecastle/fo'c's'le apropos depot,
O for /ɔ:/ in or ore oar story door poor pour court broad ought,
O for /ə/ in correct gorilla police ceremony/ceremonial bullock method/methodical symbol/symbolic atom/atomic reason lion fusion wallop doctor idol/idolatry,
O for /i/ in women,
O for /i:/ in Oedipus,
O for /ʌ/ in colour/coloratura come comfort some stomach one/lone once does done none won London Monday wonder/ponder honey money/phoney among/song sponge monk monkey/donkey month tongue front/font thorough other/bother brother mother love/cove shovel/oven/cover blood flood/food touch/crouch couple courage southern/south rough tough/trough young,
O for /ʋ/ in wolf/golf woman/Roman Worcester worsted bosom good/food would/boulder,
O for /u:/ in do/so to too two who whom whose/whole lose/rose Domesday/dome tomb/bomb womb/wombat move prove/drove lasso canoes/volcanoes man(o)euvre/-er food/good/blood tour/our,
O for /ɒ/ or /o:/ in job/Job doll/roll colliery/coal holiday/holy holly/wholly polish/Polish tone/gone/none tonic/tone cost/host nostril/nose throttle/throat photography/photo moth/both,
OI/OY for /oi/ in join joy joist/oyster,
OO for /u:/ in ooze bamboo choose/lose,
O for /ɜ:/ in colonel/colonial courtesy/courtier word worm/worn worse,
OU/OW for /au/ in out thou/how/you foul/fowl louder/powder louring/lowering aloud/allowed noun/renown/known plough/plow flour/flower floury/flowery/dowry,
silent O in chocolate subpoena m(o)ustache colonel history territory jeopardy Leonard leopard people rough tough through.
Single O in on one once only alone atone nobly go do or son shone/none home/come/epitome hose/whose love/move/rove blossom/bosom lasso woman/women,
OA in road loath/loth broad oar coarse coax coaxial coalition oasis,
OE in toe oboe poet shoe canoe+s/lasso+es doe+s/do+es potatoes/pianos oersted coerce man(o)euvre/-er f(o)etus,
O-E in home/some/epitome lone/gone/one/done Europe/envelop/envelope those/lose/purpose clothe cove/love/move,
OI in coin coincidence choir memoir bourgeois connoisseur porpoise,
OO in room good/food book/spook blood brooch door cooperative zoology,
OR in for world coral/floral/sorrel forage/porridge,
OU in you/thou our/your/tour four/forty sound/soup/soul south/southern pouch/touch youth/young cloud/could should/shoulder sour/pour source journey scourge wound (=injury)/wound (=<to wind up) courage court/courteous rigo(u)r/rigorous yog(h)(o)urt vicious,
(for -OUGH, see under GH),
OW in how/show bow (=of ship)/row (noise)/sow (female pig)bow (=knot)/row (with oars)/sow (seed) crowd/crowed tower/rower brown/grown allow/fallow window/endow know/acknowledge.
(For AO, EO, IO, see under A, E, I.)
Non-O rhymes on/wan so/sew son/sun done/dun none/nun some/sum sponge/lunge young/tongue/lung blood/bud Monday/Sunday honey/sunny through/threw worry/hurry world/whorled/whirled f(o)etus (o)edema shoe/blue/few colonel/kernel courtesy/curtsy journal/diurnal scourge/urge route/brute touch/much broad/bawd thought/taught couple/supple double/bubble nourish/nurse brood/brewed soot/put taboo/tabu loot/lute tooth/truth surf/serf surge/serge gorilla/guer(r)illa lesson/lessen fashion/freshen author/ether/Arthur advisor/adviser castor/caster censor/censer conveyor/conveyer minor/miner labo(u)r/sabre/-er vigo(u)r/figure meadow/plateau.
P in pip pew plan prop spit purple apron tops apt depth help jump glimpse harp crisp gallop stop,
P/PP in supper/super puppet stop/stops/stopped/stopping/stoppage stopgap/unstoppable happy hippopotamus maple/apple/chapel/lapel copper/proper pepper/leper coppice/copse worshipped/gossiped galloped/hiccupped apposite/apostate opponent/opinion support/superb,
PH in phantom/fantasy phial/vial Philippines/Filipino Philistine/Palestine phrenology/frenetic gopher/gofer Stephen/Steven telephone/freefone photograph sphere gryphon/griffin samphire nephew sulphur/sulfur Rudolph/MacPherson/Murphy phlox/flocks prophet/profit diphtheria/diptera ophthalmic/optic haphazard upheaval shepherd,
cognates without P in consumption/consume Hampstead/Hamstead prompt/pronto sempstress/seamstress Thompson/Thomson,
silent P in Campbell/amble cupboard/Hubbard raspberry empty tempt pneumatic/numismatic psalm/salmon pseudonym psychology/sycophant/cycle pterodactyl/helicopter ptomaine/symptom ptarmigan receipt/deceit/conceit/receive sapphire Beauchamp coup corps.
Q for /k/ in Qatar quake quest quick quote squeal conquest/conquer obloquy Iraq,
QU for /k/ in conquer/conquest quay queue bouquet/banquet liquor/liquid Urquhart cheque/check baroque unique,
CQ(U) for /k/ acquaint/aquatic acquit/aquiline,
(for C/QU and C/Q alternation, see under C;
for K/Q alternation, see under K),
silent Q in Colquhoun.
R in roar very,
R with consonants in rhyme catarrh break cram chrysalis drip frog grin phrase print shriek scream sprung string tread throat vroom write barb force arch orchid bard gargle barge bark curl harm barn harp morphine barque horse harsh fort hearth carve Marx furze,
R/RR in proffered/preferred co-relation/correlation harass/embarrass marital/marry rhinitis/antirrhinum tar/tarry tower/turret tureen/terrine war/warrior very/ferry sir/whirr carol/carrot verify/terrify spirit/mirror florid/horrid fur/purr fury/furry/hurry arrive/arise corrupt/corundum irritate/iridescent surround/Surinam overrun,
syllabic R in burglar teacher centre/-er amateur tapir Cheshire actor clamo(u)r murmur injure martyr modern standard every satisfactorily marjoram tolerant emperor.
S for initial, medial and final /s/ in sat set sit so sue symmetry scar scheme sclerosis scream slip smile snag spot sphere spleen spring spew squat stop swat sword ask answer basic mason sausage misadventure gipsy lacks/lax tiffs tips myths gas yes this bus atlas thesis rhinoceros curious curiosity hippopotamus,
S for medial and final /z/ in raisin easel risen thousand husband music physics spasm clumsy boys boy's boys' men's ribs lids pigs rings pills trims tins cars spivs halves pieces churches witches presses dishes foxes buzzes freezes badges bays bees dies buys hoes flues togas similes theses alibist axis pennies pianos potatoes emus revenues city's/cities Germanys/Germanies chews laws cows hers/one's/whose,
final SE for /s/ or /z/ in chase/phase erase/ rase/raze/razor false/falls else lenses/cleanses/senses/fences tense/tents/ tens lease/please/peace geese/cheese paradise/exercise dose/rose/lose/loose goose/gooseberry/choose closer/closed house/houses user/useless,
S/SS for /s/ or /z/ in as/gas/mass is/this/hiss bass gross ass/asinine/assassin basic/classic basis/bases bus/fuss gased/gassed bused/bussed focusing/focussing canvas/canvass discus/discuss past/passed pastime/passport yes/less carcase/carcass premise/premiss press mindless kindness princess/princes obsess/possess/poses abyss/abysmal assign/aside di(s)syllabic dissent/disenchant/disease misstate/mistake hassle/tassel cease/cessation macassar/hussar assessors/scissors dessert/desert embassy/ecstasy message/presage necessity/obesity permissible/invisible possible/position,
SH for /ʃ/ in shell fish cushion fashion mushroom finish ambush/ambuscade bishop/mishap dishevel/dishearten Masham/Melksham,
SC/SCH/SI/SSI/SU for /ʃ/ in conscientious schedule schist Asia Russian emulsion extension/intention version/desertion discussion pressure sugar sure,
SI/SU for /ʒ/ in vision/mission usual measure,
S/C in adolescent convalesce advise/advice assent/ascent bodies/bodice defensive/defence/-se pennies/pence practise/practice rinse/dance,
ST for /s/ in fasten/hasten listen/piston whistle/missal/pistol,
S/T alternation in neurosis/neurotic poison/potion pretension/pretentious torsion/distortion,
S/X alternation in respect/expect result/exult pocks/pox sample/example,
S/Z alternation in analyse/-ze busy/dizzy cheese/freeze dose/doze organise/-ze grass/graze rase/raze wise/wizard false/waltz bits/blitz,
silent S in aisle isle island ascertain demesne Grosvenor viscount apropos chamois chassis corps debris fracas precis.
T in tip pit trap tsar tune twin ptomaine stop strip stew fetch eighth mantel/mantle atom eaten enter centre/-er rats empty act aft tilt ant apt art fast tolerant/different amongst/among whilst/while tyrant/tyranny peasantry tapestry keep/kept leave/left send/sent bring/brought catch/caught teach/taught meet/met light/lit shoot/shot lose/lost leapt/leaped spelt/spelled burnt/burned past/passed cut/cut,
T/TT in bite/bitten fat/fatted/fatten/fatter/fattest/batting visit/invite/omit visited/invited/omitted committee/comity benefited/benefitted but/butt mat/matt/mattress mitt/mitten net/nett put/putt set/sett what/watt carrot/garotte bonnet/brunette/cadet clarinet/clarinettist glut/glutton jet/jetty petty/petite quit/quittance rebut/rebuttal bottle/bottom/button/butter baton/batten Britannic/Brittany catty/caterwaul letter/literate/belletristic matter/material attack/ataxia attorney/atone attract/atrocity mettle/metal,
TH in the/ye then/thin/this thew throne thwack thesaurus/treasury heath/heathen hundredth fifth twelfth eighth health warmth tenth length depth hearth sixth bath/bathe/baths breath/breathe tooth/teethe smith/smithy brothel/brother maketh/eleventh/eighth depth/deep ether/tether fathom/rhythm/python logarithm/arithmetic (a)esthetic/asthma author/rather tooth/smooth the mouth/to mouth pith/with north/northern south/southern heaths/wreaths orthography withhold sou'wester/goodbye absinthe posthumous pothook shorthand Antony/Anthony Thames Thomas thyme,
T before CH in batch/bachelor satchel ditch/rich witch/which kitchen/kitsch/lichen Dutch/duchess hutch/much butcher,
T for /ʃ/ in militia insatiable spatial/spacious/facial substantial/substance/substantiate benefit/beneficial patient/ancient formation/equation ration/passion/fashion action infarction completion/discretion connection/connexion intention/extension insertion/conversion exception exemption condition/suspicion motion distortion/torsion ablution facetious nasturtium,
T for /ʧ/ in righteous question actual virtue mature nature picture Christian/Christ/Christmas,
silent T in fasten/fast/faster listen/nissen boatswain/bo's'n/bosun whistle/pistol soften chestnut postman waltz mortgage cabaret trait depot.
U for /ʌ/ in up much budge plunge disrupt rubble butter nugget sullen ultimate publish abundant supplicant/duplicate,
U for /ʋ/ in bull bullet pulpit push put sugar butcher cuckoo
U for /u:/ in flu truth Susan true rude cruise scruple,
U for /ju:/ in unit due emu cure music refuse minute (= v. small) skua fuel nuisance suit vacuum,
U after consonant with /j/ assimilation gradual verdure sugar sure pressure casual leisure mutual picture azure/failure,
U for /e/ in bury,
U for /ə/ in suggest faculty calumny voluntary Saturday Arthur injure awful difficult autumn album Whitsun circus gamut,
U for /ɜ:/ in fur turf absurd,
U for /i/ in busy minute (= 60 secs.),
U for /w/ in guano languish conquest quick persuade suite,
diacritic U in biscuit circuit guest guide guilt guitar vague/sage fatigue/prestige vogue fugue/refuge Portuguese/Portugal,
silent U in build buoyant buy fourteen/fortnight guard morgue/argue languor quay queue antique/antiquated conquer/conquest plaque technique mosque mosquito mo(u)ld mo(u)lt shoulder Beauchamp tongue victuals.
(For AU, EU, OU, see under A, E, O.)
Single U in but/put buffeting/buffet (=furniture) bunion/union butter/butane dull/full cuckold/cuckoo truck/truth sub-/super- annul/annual cucumber undulate humble/humility punish/punitive reduction/reduce resumption/resume study/student/Judy July duly refuse busy discussing/confusing/focus(s)ing minute/minute,
UA in guarantee guard guano guava language quail skua dissuade dual duality quality quaint quarter square situate actual equal sanctuary,
UE in blue Tuesday cue duet suet suede guest quest plague/argue argue/argument continue/continual due/duty pursue/pursuit,
U-E in use produce attitude huge rule assume June sure future minute,
UI in fruit suit suite quit Inuit ruin build circuit circuitous guide distinguish,
UR in fur furry furrier (=comp.adj.)/furrier (=noun) fury rural cure curry murmur surprise/support insure/injure bury concur absurd hurt Arthur lemur Saturday failure picture.
Non-U rhymes flue/flew juice/moose lute/loot concur/confer bury/berry church/birch/search surge/serge curl/girl turn/tern murmur/firmer Guelph/Gwen suave/swarf plateau/veto.
V in vane vat vixen vacant venom village vote vulgar view vroom velvet evil uvular marvel have shave waive vet rev eve even/seven Steven/Stephen spiv give revive lived alive love cove over cover move groove elves serve poverty/poor/pauper,
VV in navvy revving skivvy
(for V/F alternation see under F).
W in wag wan wall war water wave we went were wean win wine wobble won woman women wool worn worm worry wound/wound dwell Gwen Kwik-Fit swayed/swede/suede sweet/suite twin thwart toward(s) fatwa/repertoire wire/choir/quire wonder/once,
W(H) in whales/Wales/wails wharf/ward what/watt when/wen whelk where/were/ware/wear whet/wet whether/weather/wether whey/way wheel/weal which/witch Whig/wig whither/wither while/wile whine/wine whirled/whorled/world whirr/were whirred/word white/wight why/Wye,
(for AW, EW, OW, see under A, E, O;
disappearing W in he would>he'd he will>he'll,
silent W in who whom whose whole wholistic/holistic whore whooping wrap wrath wren wreak wrist write wrong wrote wrought wrung wry awry answer Chiswick sword two boatswain/bosun gunwale/gunnel housewife/hussif.
X for /ks, gz/ in axe ox sex fix flux axle/axel climax helix phlox coccyx sphinx asphyxia lexicon oxygen bauxite taxi excuse excite exit exhibit exegesis exotic express/espresso Exxon Marx/Marcus execrate/consecrate execute/persecute exist/insist expect/inspect expire/inspire extant/instant exult/insult example/sample expend/spend extend/ecstasy indexes/indices buxom/irksome approximate/proxy/ procuracy flaxen/dachshund fax/facsimile cox/cockswain pox/pocks sox/socks tax/tacks toxin/tocsin Xmas X-ray,
X for /kʃ/ in complexion/connexion/connection crucifixion/fiction anxious luxury luxurious noxious,
X for /z/ in anxiety beaux bureaux/bureaus tableaux xenophobia xerox Xerxes xylophone,
silent X in bureaux/bureaus choux faux pas grand prix Sioux.
Y for /j/ in yak yam yacht yeoman yes yew/ewe yield yonder yodel yoke yolk you/due/queue/few/view young yule royal lawyer prayer,
Y for /i/ in myth myriad cataclysm rhythm syllable symbol synthesis syrup pyjamas/pajamas curts(e)y whisk(e)y marry lady any merry city ivy tidy only scallywag/scalawag,
Y for /ai/ in by bye cry fly sky ay aye eye buy/guy dye rye gyrate/giro hyperactive hypochondriac lychee/litchi typhoon tycoon Argyll Forsyth,
Y for /ai, i/ in cycle/cyclical type/typical tyrant/tyranny gyn(a)ecology/misogyny reply/pity ally/alley imply/simply psychiatry/ sycophant synapse/synagogue synovitis/synopsis to multiply/multiply (=adv.<multiple) to supply/supply (=adv.<supple) hypothesis/hypocrite analysis/analyse/-yze,
Y for /ɜ:, ə/ in myrrh myrtle martyr satyr zephyr,
(for AY, EY, OY see under A, E, O),
YE in aye bye dye lye stye Wye,
Y-E in acolyte Clyde dyke enzyme pyre rhyme style/stilus thyme tyre/tire paralyse/-yze scythe,
Y/I alternation in day/daily silly/sillier/silliest dry/ drier/dryer fly/flight sly/sleight shy/shier/shyer/shiest/shyest alley/alleys ally/ allies/allied/allying try/trial honey/honeyed/honied money/moneys/ monies worry/worries/worrier/worrying dysfunction/disorganize hendiadys/ di(s)syllabic organise/-ze/paralyse/-ze cyder/cider cypher/cipher dyke/dike gybe/gibe gypsy/gipsy gyrate/giro lanyard/laniard lychgate/lichgate oxygen/oxide pygmy/pigmy sylvan/silvan syphon/siphon tyre/tire tyro/tiro bogy/bogey/bogie caddy/caddie pixy/pixie stymy/stymie.
Z for /z/ in Zanzibar zany zeal zebra zenith zero zest zigzag zinc zone zoo czar/tsar crazy lazy azalea Elizabeth enzyme magazine bamboozle hazel Amazon bedizen citizen dozen horizon bazaar bizarre Brazil Byzantine chimpanzee gazelle gazette hazard marzipan wizard/wise stanza frenzy adz(e) blaze braze/brass daze gaze glaze/glass graze/grass haze/phase maze raze/rase baize maize amaze gauze razor/laser trapeze breeze freeze frieze sneeze squeeze seize/please topaz/has quiz/his prize/rise size capsize organize/organise analyse/analyze doze froze/rose bronze ooze,
Z/ZZ in fez/fezzes buzz dizzy/busy fizz jazz/topaz quiz/quizzed whiz(z) mizzen lizard/blizzard dazzle drizzle sizzle nozzle muzzle puzzle grizzly/grisly,
other values of Z in eczema blitz chintz kibbutz quartz/quarts waltz/false Switzerland/Swiss pizza Alzheimers Nazi schizophrenia azure seizure/leisure Czech capercailzie Dalziel Menzies,
silent Z in laissez-faire rendezvous.
The contents of this pamphlet may be reproduced, provided that the source is acknowledged as the Simplified Spelling Society.
ISBN 0 9506391 6 8
Text enlarged and reset from the cover of the Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society ISSN 0950-9585.
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